Global Tuberculosis Report, 2018
World Health Organization (WHO)
The aim of the WHO Global Tuberculosis Report is to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date assessment of the tuberculosis epidemic, and of progress in prevention, diagnosis and treatment of the disease at global, regional and country levels.
Implementing the End TB Strategy: the essentials
World Health Organization (WHO)
ISBN 978 92 4 150993 0
The aim of this document is to guide actions that are needed at the national level to adapt, launch and implement the World Health Organization’s End TB Strategy. The Strategy, approved by the 67th World Health Assembly in 2014, is designed to achieve a health-related target under the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 3 that calls for ending the TB epidemic. Pursuing this ambitious but achievable goal will require new ways of working, building on the national and global efforts of the past two decades and seizing the opportunity to draw in many new stakeholders to join the endeavour.
This document was developed by the WHO’s Global TB Programme. It has benefited from the collective inputs of WHO’s Strategic and Technical Advisory Group for Tuberculosis and in-depth consultations with many stakeholders during the two-year development of the Strategy and during the year after its approval. It also builds on the early experiences of countries preparing to introduce the Strategy.
This document, designed for use mainly by national TB programmes (NTPs) and equivalents within Ministries of health, is intended for all stakeholders engaged in TB care and prevention. The NTPs must engage with a wide range of stakeholders to implement the Strategy. Using this document as a starting point, country officials may need to prepare detailed national operational guidance on the implementation of the Strategy to meet the needs of diverse stakeholders.
As countries adapt and implement the End TB Strategy and share their experiences, WHO will provide additional guidance and tools and revise The Essentials as appropriate. This is therefore a ‘living’ document and will be enriched by supplementing it further with country examples and case studies available online.
This book provides an essential, comprehensive treatise on bovine tuberculosis and the bacterium that causes it, Mycobacterium bovis. Bovine tuberculosis remains a major cause of economic loss in cattle industries worldwide, exacerbated in some countries by the presence of a substantial wildlife reservoir. It is a major zoonosis, causing human infection through consumption of unpasteurised milk or by close contact with infected animals.
Following a systematic approach, expert international authors cover epidemiology and the global situation; microbial virulence and pathogenesis; host responses to the pathogen; and diagnosis and control of the disease.
Aimed at researchers and practising veterinarians, this book is essential for those needing comprehensive information on the pathogen and disease, and offers a summary of key information learned from human tuberculosis research.
Table of contents
1: Bovine tuberculosis: worldwide picture
2: Mycobacterium bovis as the causal agent of human tuberculosis: public health implications
3: Economics of bovine tuberculosis: a One Health issue
4: The epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis infection in cattle
5: Mycobacterium bovis molecular typing and surveillance
6: Bovine tuberculosis in other domestic species
7: Role of wildlife in the epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis
8: Molecular virulence mechanisms of Mycobacterium bovis
9: The pathology and pathogenesis of Mycobacterium bovis infection
10: Innate immune response in bovine tuberculosis
11: Adaptive immunity
12: Immunological diagnosis
13: Biomarkers in the diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex infections
14: Vaccination of domestic and wild animals against tuberculosis
15: Managing bovine tuberculosis: successes and issues
16: Perspectives on global bovine tuberculosis control
Roadmap for zoonotic tuberculosis
World Health Organization (WHO), Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) joint publication.
Zoonotic tuberculosis (TB) is a form of TB in people predominantly caused by the bacterial species, Mycobacterium bovis, which belongs to the M. tuberculosis complex. The implications of zoonotic TB go beyond human health. The organism is host-adapted to cattle, where it is referred to as bovine TB, and it also causes TB in other animal species including wildlife. Bovine TB has an important economic impact and threatens livelihoods.
The time is right for a bold and concerted effort to collectively address zoonotic and bovine TB, framed within the multidisciplinary United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 2016–2030 and WHO’s End TB Strategy which seek to end the global TB epidemic by 2030. The Strategy calls for the diagnosis and treatment of every person with TB, and this must include zoonotic TB. This is supported by the Stop TB Partnership’s Global Plan to End TB 2016–2020 – The Paradigm Shift, which identifies people at risk of zoonotic TB as a neglected population deserving greater attention.
The human burden of disease cannot be reduced without improving standards of food safety and controlling bovine TB in the animal reservoir. A One Health approach recognises the interdependence of the health of people, animals and the environment, and the engagement of all relevant sectors and disciplines. The declaration made by the leaders of the G20 forum in July 2017, G20 Leaders’ Declaration: Shaping an Interconnected World, calls for a One Health approach to tackling the spread of antimicrobial resistance and highlights the need to foster research and development for TB.
The first steps towards formally conceptualising this roadmap began in April 2016 in Geneva at a meeting co-organised by WHO and The International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (The Union), with contributions from leading international organisations for human and animal health, academic institutions, and non-governmental organisations. With this roadmap, we call for concerted action through broad engagement across political, financial and technical levels, including government agencies, donors, academia, non-governmental organisations and private stakeholders. This roadmap lays down ten priorities grouped into three core themes. To end the global TB epidemic by 2030, action must begin today. Milestones are defined for the short-term, by 2020, and medium-term, by 2025.
Plurithematic issue of the Scientific and Technical Review, 2018The plurithematic issue of the Scientific and Technical Review, 2018, contains 22 articles, two of which relate particularly to bovine tuberculosis. Both articles are described and summarised below.
- Isolation and analysis of the molecular epidemiology and zoonotic significance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in domestic and wildlife ruminants from three states in India. Authors: F. Mukherjee, V.S. Bahekar, S.Y. Pasha, P. Kannan, A. Prasad, S.K. Rana, A. Kanani, G.K. Sharma, D. Premalatha & V.A. Srinivasan – doi:10.20506/rst.37.3.2902.
The majority of tuberculosis cases in ruminants are caused by Mycobacterium bovis (MB). However, in this study, the authors reported the isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MT) from bovine milk, nasal swabs and postmortem tissue samples collected from cattle and buffaloes in the states of Telangana, Maharashtra and Gujarat in India in the period from 2010 to 2015. The isolates were confirmed as Mycobacterium due to their growth characteristics and colony morphology in a commercial liquid medium Mycobacterial Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT)™ employing the BD BACTEC™ MGIT™ 960 system and the Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) medium supplemented with glycerol but not with sodium pyruvate, and BD-DIFCO™ Middlebrook 7H10 agar containing oleic albumin dextrose catalase (OADC). These isolates were initially identified as members of the M. tuberculosis complex (MTC) using a commercial nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) kit based on the IS6110 MTC specific nucleotide sequence. The isolates were confirmed as MT using three commercial line probe assay kits, were further genotyped, and the spoligotypes identified were of East African Indian (EAI) 3_IND, EAI5, Central-Asian (CAS) 1_DELHI, U and T1 lineages. Two MT isolates from one antelope (Antilope cervipara) and one gazelle (Gazella bennettii) from Gujarat, which were identified previously, were spoligotyped during this study and identified as belonging to EAI3_IND and EAI5 lineages, respectively. The epidemiological significance and zoonotic implications of regional presence and documentation of the same or two different spoligotypes in different species within the family Bovidae as well as humans is discussed.
- Antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles against field and reference strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis and multiple-drug-resistant tuberculosis strains. Authors: A. Selim, M.M. Elhaig, S.A. Taha & E.A. Nasr – doi:10.20506/rst.37.3.2888.
This study aims to investigate the antimycobacterial activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by determining the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of AgNPs, using the microplate Alamar blue assay. The AgNPs were chemically synthesised and their form and size were characterised by ultraviolet-visible absorption spectrophotometry, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The reference strains of Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, and one multiple-drug-resistant (MDR) strain of M. tuberculosis were tested, as well as clinical isolates of M. bovis and M. tuberculosis. The AgNPs were tetrahydral with a few spherical particles and an average particle size of 50 nm. The mycobacterial strains were varied with MICs of AgNPs. Both reference strains of M. tuberculosis and M. bovis, in addition to the MDR strain of M. tuberculosis, were successfully inhibited by AgNPs at MICs of 1 μg/ml, 4 μg/ml and 16 μg/ml, respectively, whereas clinical isolates of M. bovis and M. tuberculosis were inhibited at MIC values of 4–32 μg/ml and 1–16 μg/ml, respectively. The AgNPs showed an in vitro chemotherapeutic effect against Mycobacterium spp. Thus, they can be used to treat tuberculosis not only in humans but also in animals, and may be useful in tuberculosis prevention and control strategies worldwide.
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OIE technical standards for manufacturing and quality control of veterinary vaccines
21 x 14.8 cm, 134 pp.
Price: EUR 30; PDF: EUR 25.
The OIE aims to prevent and control animal diseases including zoonoses, facilitate safe international trade in animals and animal products, and contribute to the improvement of animal health and welfare services worldwide.
These global animal health objectives are achieved through a variety of means, including the collaborative development and publication of technical standards for manufacturing and quality control of veterinary vaccines.
This technical reference is a compilation of selected vaccine-related Chapters from the Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals and the Terrestrial Animal Health Code. It is intended to serve as a readily accessible technical resource for vaccine manufacturers and regulatory officials, to advance global awareness and implementation of the established science-based standards for the quality, safety and efficacy of veterinary vaccines.
We hope that this reference will prove useful to vaccine manufacturers and regulatory officials to help them to maximise the quality and availability of veterinary vaccines that are required for the prevention and control of animal diseases.
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OIE technical standards for diagnostic tests and vaccines for bovine tuberculosisThe World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) is an intergovernmental, animal health, standard-setting organisation that develops and publishes science-based standards for animal health and welfare programmes, as well as technical standards for the manufacturing and quality control of diagnostic tests and vaccines for use in the diagnosis, prevention and control of animal diseases, including bovine tuberculosis.
The technical standards for diagnostic tests and vaccines are developed and updated collaboratively, through an extensive network of scientific experts in OIE Collaborating Centres and Reference Laboratories throughout the world, and in consultation with Member Country Delegates who review and approve the final texts through a vote at the OIE General Session, which is held in Paris in May of each year.
These adopted standards are published in the Terrestrial Animal Health Code (Terrestrial Code) and the Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals (Terrestrial Manual).
Bovine tuberculosis is covered in the Terrestrial Code Chapter 8.11. Infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex  and the Terrestrial Manual Chapter 3.4.6. Bovine tuberculosis .
Chapter 8.11, Infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, of the Terrestrial Code provides an overview of the animal health standards and requirements for demonstrating freedom from bovine tuberculosis or notifying its presence within a country, zone, compartment or herd, and lists the agreed procedures for ensuring safe international movement of animals and animal products. These recommendations are intended to help manage the human and animal health risks associated with animals infected with a member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (M. bovis, M. caprae and M. tuberculosis).
Chapter 3.4.6, Bovine tuberculosis, of the Terrestrial Manual provides a detailed description of the disease and recommended laboratory methods to identify the causative agent, as well as the internationally accepted diagnostic techniques for official disease control and eradication programmes and international trade. This chapter also outines the technical standards for manufacturing and testing bovine tuberculosis vaccines and diagnostic tests.