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Panorama Resources
Current Issue : #2019-3


The OIE PPP Handbook

Guidelines for Public–Private Partnerships in the veterinary domain

  • Resources

    Public–private partnerships (PPPs) for efficient sustainable animal health systems and veterinary services

    Author: Bouda Vosough Ahmadi
    World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)
    DOI: 10.20506/TT.2776

    Report on a Technical Item presented to the 15th Conference of the OIE Regional Commission for the Middle East, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates (10–14 November 2019).

    [ Download the report ]

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    Public–private partnerships: expectations of private sector partners for international animal health and livestock sector development programmes

    Authors: S.J. Thevasagayam, I. Dieuzy-Labaye & E. Tagliaro
    World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)
    DOI: 10.20506/TT.2658

    Report on a Technical Item presented to the OIE World Assembly of Delegates during its 85th General Session (21–26 May 2017).

    [ Download the report ]

  • Resources

    The OIE Resolution no. 39 of May 2017

    Public–Private Partnerships: expectations of private sector partners for international animal health and livestock development programmes and the implications for the OIE


    1. The critical role the animal health and livestock sectors play in contributing to the achievement of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs),
    2. That the engagement of private sector entities, including corporations, small and medium enterprises (SMEs), private foundations and philanthropists, can accelerate progress towards the accomplishment of the SDGs,
    3. That Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) provide an optimal mix of the unique strengths of both the public and private sectors and can often accomplish much more than the most determined effort by any one operating alone,
    4. That PPPs are a recognised mechanism for sourcing and engaging complementary resources, expertise and capabilities and offer substantial opportunities in meeting the SDGs as well as other national specific priorities,
    5. That the private sector is keen to complement the efforts of national Veterinary Authorities, provided that there is a clear delegation of responsibilities, transparent governance, functional regulatory framework, consistent application of rules, regular review and clear exit arrangements,
    6. That private sector partners require clear objectives and measureable impacts be defined prior to engaging in PPPs and although these may differ from the public sector, the results of the PPP will be of mutual benefit and create a win-win situation,
    7. That internationally agreed animal health and welfare standards continue to apply in all aspects of PPPs, and that the OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code glossary definition of Veterinary Services includes both the governmental and non-governmental organisations that implement animal health and welfare measures, thus recognising private sector organisations, veterinarians and veterinary para-professionals as vital contributors to national Veterinary Services,
    8. That PPP arrangements should and often do reflect the OIE Strategic Plan with an emphasis on diversity, inclusiveness, transparency and engagement, and also acknowledge the Tripartite approach,
    9. That the OIE assesses the capacity of Veterinary Authorities to interact with interested stakeholders through the Performance of Veterinary Services (PVS) Pathway,
    10. That the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, as a private partner, thus has specific objectives for its investments which must align with the Foundation’s vision to help reduce inequity,
    11. That, in October 2016, the OIE signed a three-year collaboration with the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation entitled Public Private Progress to study the impact of PPPs in improving Veterinary Service delivery in Africa and Asia, and, as such, has started garnering positive experiences with PPPs at the global level,


    1. The OIE develop a global resource mobilisation strategy targeting private investors, and engage with them in order to stimulate investments in international/regional/national animal health and livestock sector development programmes in collaboration with relevant partners,
    2. The OIE and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, in the framework of their collaboration, use the results of the Public Private Progress initiative to demonstrate the positive impacts of PPPs and disseminate best practices to support OIE Member Countries in developing successful and sustainable PPPs in the field of animal health and livestock sector development,
    3. In recognition of the fact that the growth of the private sector often outpaces that of Veterinary Authorities, the required resources be allocated to Veterinary Authorities to create enabling environments for PPPs,
    4. The Member Countries encourage and facilitate the organisation of producer (commodity or industry) groups that can serve as partners with the public sector as a prelude to developing the enabling environments for the Veterinary Authority to support the development of the livestock sector through expanded production and trade,
    5. The Member Countries take stock of the best practices identified by the OIE and promote, develop and implement policies and legislation to incentivise collaborations with the private sector to improve animal health and livestock sector development,
    6. OIE Member Countries make every effort to appropriately manage any perception of conflict of interest arising from any PPPs,
    7. When developing PPPs, Member Countries ensure that such arrangements also contribute to existing global efforts for the control of animal diseases such as Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR), Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD), rabies or avian influenza,
    8. Where relevant, Member Countries are encouraged to request a PVS Evaluation Follow-Up mission to monitor country progress in complying with OIE standards including their capacity to interact with interested stakeholders, as assessed in fundamental component III.


    The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and other investors to take action, in collaboration with the OIE, and continue to advocate and support the development of suitable private sector partners with which national Veterinary Authorities can engage to create an enabling environment for PPPs targeting the development of the livestock sector and contributing to the achievement of the SDGs.


    (Adopted by the World Assembly of Delegates of the OIE on 25 May 2017
    (in view of an entry into force on 26 May 2017)

  • Resources

    Public–private partnerships in the veterinary domain: the OIE Web portal

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    Implementation of international standards through public–private partnerships

    Standards and Trade Development Facility (STDF)

    The STDF has on-going work on the implementation of standards through public-private partnerships (PPPs). In March 2018, the concept note on PPPs was updated to outline planning for new STDF work on PPPs, with the overall aim of building on, updating and complementing previous work by the STDF and its partners.

    [ Download the concept note from the STDF website ]

  • Resources

    A guide for developing and implementing public–private partnership models for sustainable fisheries and aquaculture development in Africa

    African Union – Interafrican Bureau for Animal Resources (AU–IBAR)
    ISBN 978-9966-1659-5-4
    24 pages

    This work, which was prepared by Solomon Enebi Agamah, was done under the project ‘Strengthening institutional capacity to enhance governance of the fisheries sector in Africa’, funded by the European Union.

    [ Download the document from the AU–IBAR website ]

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    How to do Public–Private–Producer Partnerships (4Ps) in agricultural value chains

    International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD)
    33 pages

    This how-to-do note provides guidance for project design teams on how to design a 4P component and how to support the implementation of 4Ps within IFAD-funded projects. It builds on findings and lessons learned from previous IFAD-supported projects.

    [ Download the document from the IFAD website ]

  • Resources

    Determinants of public–private partnerships in infrastructure

    Authors: Mona Hammami, Jean-Francois Ruhashyankiko & Etienne B. Yehoue
    International Monetary Fund (IMF)
    37 pages

    This working paper presents an empirical analysis of the cross-country and cross-industry determinants of public-private partnership (PPP) arrangements. Authors find that PPPs tend to be more common in countries where governments suffer from heavy debt burdens and where aggregate demand and market size are large. Their findings also suggest that macroeconomic stability is essential for PPPs. They provide evidence on the importance of institutional quality, where less corruption and effective rule of law are associated with more PPP projects. PPPs are also more prevalent in countries with previous PPP experiences. At the industry level, they find that PPP determinants vary across industries depending on the nature of public infrastructure, capital intensity, and technology required. They also find that private participation in PPP projects depends on the expected marketability, the technology required, and the degree of ‘impurity’ of the goods or services.

    [ Download the document from the World Bank website ]